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The following is a glossary of common printing terms.
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In paper, the property which causes it to take up liquids or vapors in contact with it.
Additional Color
Color added to the four primary colours for printing, used in direct tint.
Additive Primaries
Red, green and blue are the primary colors of light from which all other colours can be made.
Against The Grain
Folding or feeding paper at right angles to the grain direction of the paper.
Visibly jagged steps along angled or object edges, due to sharp tonal contrasts between pixels.
Changes made in text copy or art after a job has been set in type or shot and proofs have been pulled for checking.
Application File Format
When a document is created using desktop publishing software, the resulting files or files are typically saved to the computer's hard disk. This file is said to be in an Application File Format. This format is unique to the software used and enables the user to continue to work with the document.
White space added to margins of text area on a page to accommodate a foldout.
When referring to electronic archiving, it means the ability to electronically store documents for future electronic, on-demand printing. The files are commonly stored in a print ready format and are not accessible for editing. However, changes to the stored document can be incorporated by replacing pages or entire sections with updated pages.
Illustrations, drawings, photographs, renderings, paintings, sketches, or copy of any kind - except text copy - that is being prepared or used for reproduction.
The phase of the print job in which the job is finished - that is, where the printed sheet is manipulated into its final format by such processes as folding, stitching, gluing, and cutting.
Bindery Operations
Operations normally performed after press operations. Such operations may include punching, fastening, drilling, folding, trimming, slitting, numbering and affixing.
Bit Depth
The number of bits used to represent each pixel in an image to determine its colour or tone.
Bit Map
In computer imaging, the electronic representation of a page, indicating the position of every possible spot (zero or none).
Bitmapped (Rasterized) Image
A graphic or character represented by pixels or dots that display the graphic's light or dark spots arranged horizontally and vertically. Each pixel is indicated as a 1 (dark spot) or a 0 (light spot) to the computer in binary code.
Black Point
A reference point that defines the darkest area in an image, causing all other areas to be adjusted accordingly.
A covering on the printing cylinder of an offset press. The blanket receives the impression from the plate and transfers it to the paper. Since the blanket acts as a transfer agent, it will have a "mirror" image of the images on the plate and substrate.
Blanket-to-Blanket press
In offset printing, a configuration in which a continuous web of paper is fed between two blanket cylinders, printing both sides at once. Also called a perfecting press.
That part of the image which extends beyond the trim-line of the page (i.e., the printed matter designed to run off the edge of the paper). Illustrations which spread to the edge of the page and allow no margins are described as bled-off.
Blow Up
A photographic enlargement.
Bottom Printing
Printing on the underside of translucent film or paper, so the design reads through the top.
A software application that permits browsing, retrieval and viewing of content on the Internet, World Wide Web and intranets.
The degree of thickness of paper. In book printing, the number of pages per inch for a given basis weight.
In platemaking, a common term used for a plate exposure.
A measurement unit equal to 8 bits of digital information.
Acronym for Compact Disc-Read-Only Memory. A CD-ROM drive uses the CD format as a computer storage medium.
Facing pages in the center of a section. Center spreads are also called naturals.
The conversion of all tones lighter than a specified grey level to white, or darker than a specified grey level to black, causing loss of detail. This also applies to individual channels in a color image.
Term used to describe paper or board that has a top layer of china clay (a mineral) to give a smooth finish. Coated stock reproduces a sharper dot that uncoated substrates (i.e., paper) and usually has a higher level of gloss. Glossy magazines, for example, are printed on coated paper. Also known as enamel paper or surface paper.
Coated Paper
Paper or board covered with a mat or brilliant shiny effect to get a better print.
In printing, an emulsion, varnish or lacquer applied over a printed surface to protect it.
Cold Color
In printing, a color with a bluish cast.
Cold-Set Ink
A solid ink that, when used on a "hot press" (one that has a heated cylinder), melts into a liquid that then solidifies on contact with the paper.
To organize, gather and assemble the various parts of a printed piece or business form.
Color Cast
An overall color imbalance in an image, as if viewed through a colored filter.
Color Correction
Any method such as masking, dot-etching, re-etching and scanning, or editing used to improve color rendition.
Color Separation
The division of colors of a continuous tone multicolored original or line copy into basic portions, each of which is to be reproduced by a separate printing plate.
Color Separations
Color process printing uses four colours: (1) cyan; (2) yellow; (3) magenta; and (4) black {also known as CYMK}. These print as tiny dots of solid color, which combine to give the full color range of the original. The copy is broken down into the process colors by photographic or electronic color separation. In separation, the original copy is photographed four times using colored filters, to produce a different separation negative for each color.
Color Swatch
A series of color guides, which may be graded in a standardised fashion as in the Pantone matching system.
The reduction in size of an image file.
Continuous Tone
A photographic image which contains gradient tones from black to white.
Contra Vision
A print substrate whose panels typically provide one-way vision, see-through graphic advertisements and signs.
The complete advertising message to be displayed on the advertising structure.
Board composed of one or several fluted paper sheets glued between or on one more flat facings.
Counter Dispenser
Advertising material placed on the counter with on its front side several products exposed to the consumer for self-service, contrary to a stocking material where the products are placed at the back side of the display and thus on the seller's side.
Extent to which ink covers the substrate (paper). Ink coverage is usually expressed in percentage terms.
Partial shaping of cardboard through stamping to allow it to fold.
A type of color proof, produced from color separated film, used to give an indication to the client of how the full-color print job will look.
To eliminate portions of the copy, usually on a photograph or plate, indicated on the original by cropmarks.
Crop Marks
In design, the lines drawn on an overlay or in the margins of an illustration to define the portion of the image that will appear in the reproduction.
Trimming or masking sections of the artwork that are not required to be printed.
An image that continues from one page of a publication across the gutter to the opposite page.
A waviness or rolling effect that sometimes occurs at the edge of a paper sheet. It is usually associated with the improper moisture balance within the sheet, or uneven drying when the orientation with the sheet, improper refining of pulp or mechanical stresses during manufacture or printing.
Cutting or Creasing
An operation carried out on a special finishing machine when special shapes need to be cut and creased. For each job, a form is made up to shape with cutting and/or creasing rules to the required design.
The special blue used in four-color process printing.
The process colors Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and Black which are combined in varying amounts to represent colors in an original image. K is used for Black to avoid confusion with Blue.
The expansion of compressed image files.
The degree of darkness (light absorption or opacity) of a photographic image.
The degree of opacity of a light absorbing filter, pigment or exposed photographic emulsion.
That part of a lower case letter which extends below the main body, as in "p,"
Removal of halftone dot patterns during or after scanning printed matter by defocusing the image.
A tool made from steel and wood used for cutting irregular shapes from paper or board. Also called a form.
Die Cutting
Using a form to cut holes or irregular outlines in display work or printed pieces.
Die Stamping
A printing technique that uses a die to emboss a relief image onto a surface. Ink or metallic foil is generally used to add color, but if not the surface is said to be blind-stamped. Also known as relief stamping.
Die Press
A machine that is used to die cut or emboss a shape into paper or board.
Digital Color Proof
A color proof produced from digital data without the need for separation films.
Direct exposure of image data onto printing plates, without the intermediate use of film.
Elimination of intermediate film and printing plates by the direct transfer of image data to printing cylinders in the press.
Document Reader
An OCR (Optical Character Recognition) device that reads one or several lines of data when the document is moved past one or more read heads.
The individual element of a halftone.
Dot Gain
In printing, a defect in which dots print larger than they should, causing darker tones or stronger colors.
Acronym for "Dots Per Inch". A 300 DPI printer, for instance is capable of printing 300 dots across and 300 down within one inch square. DPI is a measurement of resolution for scanning, displaying, or printing.
A preliminary layout showing the position of illustrations and text as they are to appear in the final reproduction. A set of blank pages made up in advance to show the size, shape, form and general style of a piece of printing.
A two-color halftone reproduction from a one-color photograph.
To create an identical duplicate of an original piece of film.
In composition, a unit of measurement exactly as wide an high as the point size being set.
Process producing raised images on thin materials such as paper, cardboard, leather or certain supple plastics : dry embossing or ink embossing.
A light-sensitive coating on film or stencils.
In composition, one-half the width of an em.
Enamel Paper
Coated Paper. Term used to describe paper or board that has a top layer of china clay (a mineral) to give a smooth finish. Coated stock reproduces a sharper dot than uncoated substrates (paper) and usually has a higher level of floss. Glossy magazines, for example, are printed on coated paper. Also known as coated paper or surface paper.
Encapsulated PostScript. A file format often used for images generated in object-orientated drawing applications like "Illustrator" or "Freehand" and for scanned images.
Represents the opportunity for an advertising message to be seen and read.
Number of products of a same range represented in the front line of the store shelf.
In printing presses, the section that separates the sheets and feeds them in position for printing.
Fibre Optic Display
An innovative use of electronic light transmitting fibres to create changeable copy displays.
Negative/Positive Sheets or rolls or a clear and stable plastic containing line and/or tone reproductions of the image. Used during the making of printing stencils.
Film Negative
A reverse photographic image in which dark areas appear light and vice versa. Film negatives are used to make printing plates.
Film Positive
A piece of clear acetate or other film upon which the image appears as it did in the original.
Finished Size
The size of a printed product after production is complete.
All production operations after printing. The processes include cutting, punching, stitching and gluing.
Flatbed Scanner
Any scanning device that incorporates a flat transparent plate, on which original images are placed for scanning.
In composition, a complete assortment of letters, numbers, punctuation marks, etc. of a given size and design. For example, Times or Helvetica.
All elements that make up the individual character of a publication. Format includes size, style, type, page margins, printing requirements, binding, etc.
Four Colour Process
A technique of printing that uses the three process colours of ink (cyan, magenta, yellow) and black to simulate colour photographs or illustrations.
Four Color Process Inks
The inks used in four-color process printing.
Acronym for "File Transfer Protocol". A networking protocol for moving files between computers.
Full Color
Synonymous with Four-Colour Process.
Image printing 1/8" - 1/4" beyond the trim marks on all sides. This is done to aid the printer in preventing a white edge from appearing if the paper is not trimmed perfectly.
Gamma Correction
The correction of tonal ranges in an image, normally by the adjustment of tone curves.
Phenomenon of a faint, unintended image on a printed sheet.
Gigabyte (Gb)
1,024 megabytes, or 1,048,576 kilobytes of digital data.
Gold Stamping
A process that gives a gold metallic look at impression.
(g/m2). Refers to a method of indicating the weight of paper. Written as "gsm".
(g/m2). Refers to a method of indicating the weight of paper.
A continuous tone image comprising black, white and grey data only.
Machine to trim paper or board before or after printing.
The inner margin of a page, from the edge of the printing area to the binding edge
Artwork reproduced by breaking down the original tone image into a pattern of dots of varying size. Small dots produce light areas and larger dots produce darker areas.
Hard Copy
The permanent visual record of the output of a computer or printer. (Generally, a high resolution laser print.)
In printing, spots or defects caused by foreign matter on the printing plate or screen. Ink hickies appear as dark specks with a white ring around them; paper hickies appear as white specks.
The part of a color that produces its main attribute - for example its redness or blueness - rather than its shade (lightness or darkness).
Popular object-oriented drawing application produced by Adobe.
Image Resolution
The fineness or coarseness of a digitised image. Measured in Dots Per Inch (DPI).
Laser output device which records images and text at high resolution on photosensitive paper or film.
The arranging of pages in a press form to ensure the correct order after the printed sheet is folded and trimmed.
In production, one revolution of the printing cylinder. It refers to the pressure of the type, plate, or stencil as it contacts the paper and produces printed copy. An impression is any printed page.
In House
Refers to material produced within a company or organization. Not produced using outside services.
Ink Transparency
The degree to which a substrate will show through a printed ink.
Any work done to a specific job that does not involve taking it off press, or require human intervention beyond the initial printing press set up.
In the image manipulation context, this is the increase of image resolution by the addition of new pixels throughout the image, the colors of which are based on neighboring pixels.
A digital telephone line which allows very rapid, reliable and low-cost transmission of data between two computers.
Job Estimate
Documentation indicating the price of a specific printing job; given to printing customers before a job is run. Also referred to as a job quote.
Job Ticket
A comprehensive job information form containing all pertinent job requirements including size, run, paper, color, etc.
Joint Photographic Experts Group. An organization that has defined various file compression techniques.
The alignment of text in a paragraph so that the margins are all straight on the right side, or the left side, or both. (Right Justification, Left Justification, Justified)
In typesetting, an effort to eliminate excessive white space in a document by reducing the space between certain letters.
An outline showing the shape for a diecut, crease or perforation.
Kilobyte (Kb)
1,024 bytes of digital data.
Knick Out
When an image or text is reversed out of a background color giving the illusion of white due to the unprinted portion of the paper.
Applying transparent or colored plastic films, usually with a high gloss finish, to printed matter to protect or to enhance it. Various films are available with different gloss, folding and strength characteristics. Typically done using the ultra-violet (UV) process.
Page orientation in which the width is greater than the height.
Laser Printer
Although a number of devices employ laser technology to print images, this normally refers to desktop printers which use the dry toner, xerographic printing process.
Lay Edges
The two edges of a sheet that are placed flush with the side and front (the "front lay edge") marks ("lay gauges") on a printing machine to make sure the sheet will be removed properly by the grippers and have uniform margins when printed
Lay Sheet
The first of many sheets passed through a press to check such things as register.
In typesetting systems, to lead is to add spaces between lines of type.
Light Box
A partially or completely transparent box equipped with luminous electrical fillings presenting texts or images.
Light Box
A box with a translucent glass top lit from below, giving a balanced light suitable for colour matching on which colour transparencies, prints and proofs can be examined or compared.
Line Art
Images containing only black and white pixels. Also known as bilevel images. The term line art is sometimes used to describe drawings containing flat colors without tonal variation.
Line Color
Where a color is printed using a specific color of ink rather than creating it from the process colors.
Line Copy
Reproducible copy consisting of solid blacks and whites. In text, line copy consists of letters, numerals, punctuation marks, rules, borders, dots, or any other marks in black and white. Black line illustrations on white paper are also line copy.
Line Drawings
Solid black line artwork that does not require halftone reproduction.
Lines Per Inch
The number of lines or rows of dots there are per inch in a screen and, therefore, in a screen tint, halftone or separation.
Lithographic Printing
A printing process where the image and non-image surfaces are on the same plane while the paper makes contact with the whole plate surface. The printing area is treated to accept ink and the non-printing surface is treated to attract water or other solutions so that it rejects ink.
Image compression that functions by removing minor tonal and/or colour variations, causing visible loss of detail at high compression ratios.
The number of lines or rows of dots there are per inch in a screen and, therefore, in a screen tint, halftone or separation.
The Lempel-Ziv-Welch image compression technique.
Machine Proof
A proof made on a machine similar to the one which it will be printed.
One of the colors used in four color process reproduction. Often referred to as "process red", it reflects blue and red light and absorbs green light. It is also one of the filters used in making color separations.
Make Ready
In printing, all work done to set up a press for printing.
A reproduction technique for color correction in the preparation of separations on a camera or enlarger.
In the graphic arts, preventing a specific portion of an illustration from being reproduced by placing paper over it before exposure. In offset lithography, masking refers to the use of opaque material to protect non-printing areas of the printing plate during exposure.
3M trade name for a color proof.
Matte Finish
Dull paper finish without gloss or luster. Usually achieved using a finishing technique such as a matte varnish.
Media is the physical material used to store electronic files. Typical media includes: CD's, tapes, disks, Zip disks & Jaz disks.
Megabyte (Mb)
1,024 kilobytes or 1,048,576 bytes of digital data.
Technique designed to optimise sales, based on the planned product displays on-shelf to form an attractive appealing and informative presentation for the customer.
Metallic Inks
Inks in which the normal pigments are replaced by very fine metallic particles, typically gold or silver in color.
The middle range of tones in an image.
Modular System
Elements that can be assembled in various dimensions and sizes according to the space available.
A checkered pattern which is created when the screen angles are not set out correctly in color work. Can happen when a digital scan is made from printed materials rather than from the original photographic print or transparency.
Single-colored. An image or medium displaying only black and white or greyscale information. Greyscale information displayed in one color is also monochrome.
A reverse photographic image on film or paper in which the dark areas appear light and the light areas appear dark.
In the scanning context, this refers to random, incorrectly read pixel values, normally due to electrical interference or device instability.
Image compression without loss of quality.
In optical scanning, a term referring to information that is intended to be ignored by the scanning device but can be read by the human eye. Non-read information located in the scan area of a form must be printed in a colour that is highly reflective to the scanner while still offering sufficient contrast for human reading. However, non-read information located outside the scan area of a form may be printed in a machine readable color.
Non-Reflective Inks
Inks that present sufficient contrast with the background color of the paper to be read by an optical scanning device. When viewed by optical scanners, these inks reflect relatively little light (and thus appear black to the mechanism), so the scanner recognizes these areas as marks or characters and converts them to machine language. Also called "read inks" or "scan inks".
Acronym for "Optical Character Recognition" which refers to optical machine reading of human-readable characters.
Off Print
An article or other part of a publication printed with the main run, but produced as a separate item. Also called a separate.
Offset Printing
Also called litho printing. A printing process in which the inked image is transferred from the plate to an intermediate blanket before being printed on the substrate. There are two types of offset printing - wet offset and dry offset. Wet offset is based on the principle that oil (ink) and water do not mix. Both the image and non-image areas are on the same plane of the image and non-image areas are on the same plane of the plate. A dampening solution is used, and the image and non-image areas are separated chemically. Dry offset printing uses a plate with relief (raised) type, so no dampening solution is required.
A single printing of a single signature or image on a press sheet.
The quality of being impenetrable by liquids or light. With paper, it is the ability to keep print form showing through to the other side. Opacity is the opposite of porosity.
In photoengraving and offset lithography, to paint out areas on a negative not wanted on the plate. In paper, the property which makes it less transparent.
Opaque Ink
An ink that conceals all colour beneath it.
Optical Character Reader
An optical device that scans and identifies characters on a printed page.
Optical Disk
A storage medium commonly used for storing large volumes of data. CD-ROM, Rewritable, and WORM are the most common types of optical disks.
All items or materials that the client supplies to the printer to use in the printing of the job.
Out of Register
When inks are printed over one another are not in alignment, resulting in "out of focus" images.
Double printing; printing over an area that already has been printed. Used as a cost savings in customizing small batches from larger quantities of printed material.
Manufactured and delivered quantity that exceeds the number ordered. As long as the overrun does not exceed the percentage which is usually tolerated according to legal agreement, the customer must accept. Also refered to as "overs".
Pantone's ink colour-matching system. Each colour bears a description of its formulation (in percentages) for subsequent use by the printer.
Paper Weight
Weight in gram of a square meter of paper or cardboard.
A cycle of a press or phototypesetting system. To print in one pass means that all the colours are laid down as the substrate travels once through the press; to print in two passes means that he stock has to travel twice through the press, and so on. A four colour project on a four colour press passes through once. A six color project on a four colour press passes through twice, etc.
Pass Sheet
A printed sheet of optimum print quality that is removed from the run, so subsequent sheets can be compared with it
Perfect Register
Term used by the printer to indicate a perfect juxtaposition of colors, producing a perfect image.
The preparation of printing plates involving photographic techniques.
The industry-standard software package used for image manipulation, produced by Adobe.
Printer's unit of measurement used principally in typesetting. One pica equals approximately 1/6 of an inch.
Abbreviation for "picture element". The smallest, most basic component of an image on a display screen. A pixel is comparable to an individual dot in a printed photograph. The number of pixels in an image determines its resolution.
The surface from which a print is made and that bears the image to be reproduced.
The process of making an image on a printing plate by whatever means, but usually photomechanically transferring it from film.
A large cutting and creasing press that may be integrated with printing machines.
An aberration in platemaking in which dot areas become filled in, caused by damage to the plate.
PMS Color
Pantone Matching System color. This system was devised by the Pantone Corporation as a means of standardizing custom colors of ink. The PMS system includes several hundred colors, several metallics, flourescents, and several shades of black.
Printer's unit of measurement, used principally for designating type sizes. There are 12 points to a pica; approximately 72 points to an inch.
A vertical format - the shorter dimension being at the width
The now-standard operating language through which desktop page makeup (DTP) systems operate. Pre-press systems are now described as PostScript-compatible or not.
PostScript File
A PostScript file is a special file that is created to be sent directly to the printer. Unlike an Application file, a PostScript file includes all the information necessary to print that file, including the graphics and fonts. This is the most readily accepted file format for printing. A PostScript file cannot be opened or easily modified.
Pixels per inch or pixels per centimeter. Units of measurement for scanned images.
Premake Ready
The final checking of plates before they are made ready on press.
Display serving as packaging. It is delivered packed with products.
Camera work, artwork layout, color editing, stencil making, plate making, and other activities performed by a graphic designer, production manager, or printer before press work begins.
An item printed in advance of a publication, later inserted loosely into bound copies. Also called a blow-in.
Press Check
The press check is made at the beginning the press run. The art director, production manager and pressman check that the printed piece matches the job proof as closely as possible, (or adjusts them to their preference), and that colors are in register.
Press Run
The total number of copies of a piece produced during one printing.
Primary Color
A base color that is used to compose other colors.
Process Blue
Another term for the "cyan" used in Process Color Printing.
Process Color
CYMK / Four-Color Process. The term used to describe colour printing by means of the three primary colors (yellow, magenta, and cyan) and black that when combined through a particular process, creates the illusion of the full color spectrum. (Virtually all color printing is done using the Four Color Process method.)
Process Red
Another term for the "magenta" used in Process Color Printing.
Process Yellow
Another term for the "yellow" used in Process Color Printing.
Progressive Proof
A series of colour proofs showing the individual, variously combined, and collectively combined colours used in four colour process printing. Each colour is shown separately in combination with each other colour, and in combination with every possible colour combination - finally concluding with a four colour simulation of the printed piece. These proofs are used to determine the density of each colour and each colour's effect on the other colours, especially in the order they are printed on the press.
A sheet of printed copy that is a test representation made to show how the printed job will appear when finished.
A page layout application produced by Quark.
A statement of price, terms of sale, and description of goods or services offered by a vendor to a prospective client.
Ready for Press
A machine signed acceptance of a proof before the start of the actual printing.
For the printed reproduction of work, all four process colours must be "in register" -- i.e., they must fit together perfectly. It is easy to tell if print is out of register by looking at the edge of the image through a magnifying glass. If you see a line of cyan, magenta, yellow, or black dots, that colour is out of register.
Register (Registration) Marks
In production, marks placed on a printed piece to assist in the proper positioning of a production operation (such as punching, perforating, or folding). In the graphic arts, register marks are target marks or "bull's eyes" placed on camera copy to assist in registration.
Register Sheet
A sheet used to obtain correct position and register when printing.
In printing, registration refers to the alignment of printed images.
The measure of detail in an image.
Red, Green Blue. The colours used to create the image on VDU screens. Most scanners capture their image in RGB values, necessitating the conversion of the image to CYMK values for reproduction.
RIP stands for Raster Image Format and is a print ready file format. This means that the files to be printed have been converted, through any number of steps, from their Application File Format into a format that can be understood by the printer.
Roll-to-Roll Printing
Rewinding a continuous printed web onto another roll.
Rotary Press
Any printing press in which the printing surface is on a rotating cylinder. Paper can be delivered to rotary presses in either sheet or web form.
Quick sketch of a project.
Run On
Sheets printed in addition to the basic quantity.
Sans Serif
A class of typefaces without serifs (the small terminating strokes on individual letters and characters). Helvetica and Futura are examples of sans serif typefaces.
Device used in photoengraving to allow the analysis, memorization and reproduction of an image.
A process by which images are optically sensed by a scanner and converted by special software into binary codes that correspond to the image's dark and light spots.
A partial cut through cardboard to allow bending.
Screen Frequency
The number of rows or lines of dots in a halftone image within a given distance, normally stated in lines per inch (LPI) or lines per centimeter (Lpcm). A frequency of 200 lpi would only be used in high-quality printing.
Screen Ruling
A measure of the quality or fineness of the dot structure used to reproduce a halftone image or tint, expressed in lines per inch or centimeter.
Formally called Silk Screen. Rather than print from a plate or cylinder, a stencil is prepared by hand or photographically on a screen mesh. Ink is then forced through the screen and onto the substrate.
The small terminating strokes on individual letters and characters, except in san serif faces. Most text is set in serif typefaces (fonts) because it is easier to read long passages in serif faces than in sans serif faces. (Times and Palatino are serif typefaces).
All work done to prepare the machines and printing presses before the printing starts.
The darkest area of an image.
Self Cover
To print the cover of a multipage page job using the same stock as the body pages. Generally, a more economical method of printing a cover since it requires no additional labor or set-up to accomadate the differences in paper stocks.
A printed section made up of 16 pages (or a multiple of 4 pages) that is printed all on a single sheet which is folded down or trimmed to produce a section of a book. Generally, the most economical method of printing a large number of pages since the substarte (paper) is designed to accomadate 16 pages at a time when using standard page sizes with little or no wasted space. Most magazines and books are printed in signatures.
Wooden panels designed to receive wire hooks to hang products on them.
Large printed areas which are comprised of a color. Solids use a lot more ink than non solid areas do.
Complete and precise descriptions of paper, ink, binding, quantity, and other features of a printing job.
Spot Color
Also refered to as line color. Where a color is printed using a specific color of ink rather than creating it from the process colours. Generally identified using the Pantone Matching System codes (PMS)
Person or object cut out in their real size.
To sew, staple or otherwise fasten paper or board together. (However, most commonly refers to staples.)
Paper or other material to be printed.
Attaching an opaque masking paper to raw film, in proper position, so that the plate maker can burn a printing plate. Quickly becoming an obsolete process with the advent of straight to plate/digital printing.
Foldable brace fixed at the back side of a display or a panel for vertical stability.
Any material on which printing is to be done.
A collection of color patches to show the color of papers or inks.
Acronym for "Tag Image File Format". This is a common type of image file format for illustrations created or scanned into desktop publishing software. Other common image formats include: PICT, DXF, IGES, HGL, BMP and EPS
Various even tone areas (strengths) of a solid color. Transparency --A photograph, especially a positive color image, on transparent material. Available in several formats, transparencies are, at present, the best means of conveying images to the pre-press system.
Tone Curves
Also known as gamma curves. These are used to smoothly adjust the overall tonal range of an image, or the individual tonal ranges of each color channel.
Process to reproduce 4 colors on transparent underground.
A transparent positive photograph.
The technique of slightly overlapping one image on an adjacent one to avoid unsightly white gaps if misregister occurs in printing.
To cut or square the edges of paper either before or after printing.
Trim Marks
In printing, marks placed on the copy to indicate the edge of the page.
Trim Size
Size of the printed product after the last trim is made.
A method of printing two copies of each page on a single sheet. They are eventually trimmed into separate entities after binding.
Term used to describe paper or board that does not have a top layer of china clay (mineral).
In multicolor presses, refers to the combination of inking, plate and impression operations to print each other. OPCO's 4-color Heidelberg press has 4 printing units each with its own inking, plate and impression functions.
In printing, two-up, three-up, four-up, etc. refers to imposition of material to be printed on a larger size sheet to take advantage of full press capacity.
Unsharp masking. A process used to sharpen images.
UV coating
Coating employed after printing through ultra-violet radiation. Generally glossy, but also available with matte finish. Has a plastic-like feel and appearance.
Varnish or lacquer applied to printed matter to improve its appearance or possibly to increase its durability. Not as strong or glossy as lamination or UV coating.
An illustration in which the background fades gradually away until it blends into the unprinted paper.
Warm Colour
In printing, a colour with a yellowish or reddish cast.
The process of cleaning the press, rollers, plate and ink fountain when changing ink colors on the press.
Web (Printing) Press
A rotary printing press that uses continuous paper from a large roll that is fed through a series of rollers (cylinders) on which the plates are mounted. The impression from the plate is offset onto a blanket before being printed onto the paper.
Web Offset
A rotary printing press that uses continuous reel-fed paper "web" where the impression (image) from the plate is offset onto a blanket (usually rubber) before being printed onto the paper. There are three main systems: blanket to blanket; three-cylinder systems; and satellite or planetary systems.
An acronym for "What You See Is What You Get", or the same image on the computer screen as on the laser print.
Yellow (Y)
Hue of a subtractive primary and a 4-color process ink. It reflects red and green light and absorbs blue light.
Removable disk storage medium, suitable for smaller files up to 100Mb.
How Stuff Works
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